The state and federal governments have reference tools to help them in producing charges against an individual for their drug-related crimes. These drug crimes can include a significant number of illegal substances. Here we will help you understand a variety of these substances, their drug descriptions, equivalencies, and other names associated:
Cocaine is a powerfully addictive stimulant and very illegal substance in the United States which derives from the leaves of the coca plant. Cocaine can be snorted in its powder form or dissolved in water and then injected. In 2009 it was estimated that more than 4.8 Million Americans age 12 and up had abused cocaine in any form.
For thousands of years indigenous South Americans have chewed coca leaves for contentment and sought it out for use in medicinal therapies for wounds, swelling, etc. In the 1800’s the coca leaves increased in interest to scientists and further testing and chemistry discoveries were made. In the 20th Century cocaine was used to treat ailments and could be bought in drug stores. It was not until the turn of the century that its addictive properties had become more clear.
Mass media efforts created an epidemic of cocaine use by African Americans. However, cocaine was not considered a “controlled substance” until the 1970’s with the passing of the Controlled Substances Act. Of course, because of its addictive properties, by this time, far too many were seeking cocaine to feed their addictions. While the creation of “crack” cocaine introduced the substance to a predominantly poorer inner-city market, the powder form of cocaine has stayed relatively consistent.
In the federal sentencing guidelines manual (for latest version click here), just 1 gram of cocaine is equivalent to 200 grams of marijuana. Therefore, this obviously leads to a number of very hefty sentences for defendants involved in cocaine cases.
NLPA has been assisting in cases involving cocaine for more than two decades. We have a terrific track record in helping our clients to achieve successful outcomes in their cases. NLPA can assist in any stage of your criminal case from pretrial through post-conviction. We also offer evaluation services if you are not sure what options may exist in your case. If you are interested in learning how NLPA can assist with your case, contact National Legal Professional Associates today!
Crack cocaine is the street name for a processed form of cocaine that results in the creation of rock crystals (usually with ammonia or baking soda). Those crystals are then heated to create smoke vapors which are then inhaled. Inhaling a drug is the fastest way for our bodies to absorb and begin feeling its effects. Also, by processing pure cocaine it enables the product to go much farther in terms of drug deals. This is another reason why crack cocaine has been on the rise from its simpler powder form. While a crack rock may be cheaper than its equivalent weight in powder cocaine on the streets, the judicial system does not treat it equal when imposing punishment for crimes involving crack cocaine.
Crack cocaine previously carried a 100:1 disparity from its powder cocaine counterpart even though it basically equaled to less of the actual drug than powder form. This is because of its much more addictive nature and the major increase of drug sales, crimes and addicts in the country.
In 2011 the United States Federal Sentencing Guidelines were modified after congress voted to reduce the disparity from 100:1 to 18:1. More than 10% of the inmates housed in federal prisons are serving time for crack cocaine related offenses. Therefore, this amendment had the potential to impact thousands of inmates nationwide.
If your case involves crack cocaine and your conviction occurred before the new guidelines were amended, you may be entitled to relief under the new guideline amendments.
If your conviction became final after the guideline amendments went into effect or if you have not yet been convicted, you are likely going to be sentenced under the new guideline amendments.
If you need help with a case involving crack cocaine NLPA can help. NLPA assists at virtually any stage of a case from pretrial through to post-conviction matters. Also, if you are unsure of what may be able to done to pursue relief in the case, NLPA also offers case evaluation services to come up with a detailed “road map” of options and issues available.
Marijuana creates psychoactive and physiological effects through its compound of THC. In 2004 the United Nations estimated that 4% of the adult world population used cannabis on an annual basis. In the 20th Century the possession, use and sale of marijuana was made illegal in most countries of the world. However, the U.N. estimates that marijuana is still the most used illicit drug in the world.
While the majority of the country considers marijuana illegal still, many states have taken a medicinal approach to the legality of marijuana and permit those with documented medical conditions to use it for medicinal purposes. Since 1996 states have been joining in to approve medical marijuana including: Alaska (1998); Arizona (2010); California (1996); Colorado (2000); Washington DC (2010); Delaware (2011); Hawaii (2000); Maine (1999); Michigan (2008); Montana (2004); Nevada (2000); New Jersey (2010); New Mexico (2007); Oregon (1998); Rhode Island (2006); Vermont (2004); and Washington (1998).
However, if you’re not fortunate enough to reside in one of these states and possess an approved medical marijuana license, you can find yourself in a steep bit of trouble. While being caught with a small amount in most states can result in a simple fine or short jail sentence, the more you are found with or the individuals associated with you that may get caught with larger amounts or making transactions with marijuana can land you a number of years in state or federal prison.
NLPA has been assisting with cases involving marijuana charges since the 1980’s and has developed one of the best track records in achieving positive outcomes for our clients over that period of time. For more information about our track record click here.
Hashish carries the same chemical compounds as marijuana but in much stronger concentrations. Hashish is smoked with a pipe, bong, hookah, bubbler, vaporizer, smoked in joints mixed with marijuana or tobacco and also used in foods. It’s believed hashish originated in the Middle East. Northern India has a long social tradition in producing hashish and it is said to have even been the same resin burned in ceremonies of Ancient Persia.
Hashish Oil, as with hashish is derived from cannabis in a more potent form. It is a syrupy mixture with significant THC content. Hashish oil is consumed orally, by smoking, or vaporization and is considered a Schedule I Controlled Substance under United States laws.
In 1983 the United States passed laws prohibiting possession of equipment/ precursors to meth production. In 1986 the U.S. Government passed the Federal Controlled Substance Analogue Enforcement Act to reduce crystal meth use and production. If you are unfortunate enough to need certain allergy or cold medications you now may also know that if you’re not buying the weaker versions still available over the counter you are required to provide identification to the pharmacy in order to purchase your medications. This is the result of an amendment to the Patriot Act which controls and monitors the purchase of these medications which have been linked to the production of crystal meth. This amendment also limits the number of times you can buy that medication and keeps your identification on file as a purchaser so that your history in buying them can be watched.
Methamphetamine was first synthesized from ephedrine in 1893 in Japan. Ironically, but as with most drugs now considered illegal, it was dispensed as a “multivitamin” (then referred to as Pervitin) to German soldiers in Nazi Germany. Meth labs are springing up all over the country. However, the preferred locations still seem to be in more rural areas.
While the FDA in the United States has approved methamphetamine in connection with treatment for ADHD, narcolepsy and depression, it is considered a controlled substance and being found in possession, manufacturing or distributing it can result in a lengthy prison sentence.
The Federal Sentencing Guidelines manual lists that one gram of either amphetamine and methamphetamine are equivalent to 2 to 20 kilograms of marijuana.
If you have a case involving methamphetamine charges, NLPA can help. We have an extensive history in assisting attorneys nationwide with drug related cases and can assist at the pretrial stage all the way through to post-conviction pleadings. If you need assistance, contact us today!
The drug of born of the hippie generation. When someone mentions LSD you may picture a group of flower-children sitting crossed-legged in a circle singing campfire songs and full of peace, love and happiness. That is because LSD provides its users with psychological effects including altered thinking processes, open and closed eye visuals, spiritual experiences, and altered time senses. LSD was first synthesized in 1938 from a grain fungus. LSD is typically take (or “dropped”) orally on a substrate such as a paper, sugar cube or gelatin.
LSD was introduced under the trade name Delysid in the 1940’s for a therapeutic medication that originally showed great promise. It was used for treatment for terminal patients with end-of-life anxiety (ironically considering one of its side-effects is also a “bad trip” which creates immense paranoia and anxiety in its user), cluster headaches, pain, alcoholism. In the 1950’s the CIA thought LSD may be applicable to chemical warfare and mind control. It then became used as a recreational drug resulting in political firestorm in the 1960’s that led to its prohibition. On October 24, 1968 LSD possession was made illegal in the United States.
LSD highs can last hours which is a predominant factor to its maintained popularity and costs much less than other drugs such as cocaine, heroin, and meth. Because a dose of LSD is so minute in size, this means a large amount of LSD can be produced from a fairly small amount of raw material.
LSD can be sold in vial form but is usually soaked onto a medium such as paper or, as originally used, on sugar cubes. Practical considerations later changed the preferred form to tablets. The first known tablet form after LSD’s prohibition in 1968 was “Orange Sunshine”. After tablets then came “computer acid” or “blotter paper LSD” which is offered up on a “blotter paper design”. More than 300 designs have been monitored since the 1970’s.
Among potential adverse effects from LSD are “Flashbacks” which are described as the individual experience LSD’s effects long after the drug has worn off and HPPD. An even greater adverse effect of LSD is the risk of conviction you face for possessing, manufacturing or selling it. The United States Sentencing Guidelines list that 1 gram of LSD is equivalent to 100 kilograms of marijuana.
If you are involved in a case that includes LSD and need assistance, contact NLPA today! NLPA has an extensive background in assisting with drug cases and has enjoyed one of the best track records in the country in helping our clients to achieve more positive outcomes than may have otherwise been the case.
MDMA is an entactogenic drug that induces euphoria, intimacy and diminished anxiety. MDMA was first synthesized in 1912 but was largely forgotten over the next 65 years. Clinical trials are now testing the therapeutic potential that MDMA can have for terminal cancer patients and in treating post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
MDMA is one of the most commonly used recreational drugs in the world most often associated with dance parties (“raves”). It is also frequently used in connection with other psychedelic drugs such as LSD, mushrooms or marijuana. This is referred to slangily as “candy flipping” for use with LSD, “hippy flipping” for use with psilocybin, “kitty flipping” for use with Ketamine. Many times users also use mentholated products such as menthol cigarettes, Vick’s Vapo Rub, lozenges, etc for its increased cooling sensation while experiencing the drug’s effect.
MDMA was considered a Schedule I Hallucinogen in the United States as of the 1980’s. 1 gram of MDMA is equivalent to 500 grams of marijuana in the Federal Sentencing Guidelines Manual. Being caught with MDMA, manufacturing it or selling it can result in many years in prison.
NLPA has been providing assistance in drug cases since its founding in 1986. Whether you are in the state or federal court, NLPA can help. NLPA provides assistance from the pretrial stage of a case up to post-conviction matters. If you need assistance with a case involving MDMA, contact NLPA.
Psilocybin mushrooms are a fungus containing psychoactive compounds having more than 190 species. There is evidence of use of these mushrooms in ancient times by Mayans, Aztecs and Mazatecs. After the Spanish Conquest catholic missionaries considered such plants as “pagan idolatry” and believed the mushrooms allowed individuals to communicate with the devil. Typically mushrooms are ingested with other foods to mask their taste. The high from mushrooms can last from 3 to 8 hours. Psilocybin is listed as a Schedule I drug under the U.N.’s 1971 Convention on Psychotropic Substances . Schedule I drugs are said to have high potential for abuse and are not recognized for medical use. The United States Federal Sentencing Guidelines Manual states that 1 gram of dry mushrooms is equivalent to 5 grams of marijuana while 1 gram of wet mushrooms is equivalent to 50 grams of marijuana. If you need assistance in a drug case, contact NLPA for more information about how we can assist.
PCP was formerly used as an anesthetic. It was first synthesized in 1926 and later patented by the Parke-Davis pharmaceutical company in 1952. In its recreational use it us commonly smoked, snorted or ingested and the psychoactive effects can last several hours. More than 30 different analogues were reportedly used on the streets in the USA during the 1970’s and 80’s. While many of the analogues were never tested or made, they are still classified as a Schedule I Controlled Substance Act in the United States based upon their generally considered similar effects.
Peyote is a small, spineless cactus native to Texas and Mexico primarily where there is limestone. Peyote possesses psychoactive alkaloids that is ingested worldwide for meditation, psychotherapy and, psychonautics but has a long history with Native Americans for its medicinal and ritualistic purposes. Its uses have been documented for religious, healing and ceremonial purposes starting more than 2,000 years ago. In the United States (and where the law is not racially limited) peyote use by Native American church members is legal and the exemption for such is as old as the creation of the federal law for peyote offenses and Native Americans are allowed to answer “no” on legal forms that ask if they have ever used illegal drugs. However, for the rest of us non-church members, Peyote use, harvesting, distributing and the like is a crime with severe punishments possible. The United States Federal Sentencing Guidelines Manual lists that 1 gram of peyote (dry) is equivalent to 12 grams of marijuana and 1 gram of peyote (wet) is equivalent to 120 grams of marijuana for purposes of calculating a sentencing guideline range. NLPA has been assisting in drug cases since 1986. If you have a case involving peyote or any other illegal drugs, contact NLPA for more information about how we can assist.
Including: Heroin; Methadone; Opium; Morphine; Codeine; Fentanyl; Fentanyl Analogue; Flunitrazepam; GHB
Opiates are a narcotic used as a depressant in the central nervous system. Opiates are a class of drug that include heroin, methadone, opium, codeine, morphine and almost all prescription pills. Because they provide a sense of pain-free euphoria and highness, they also can create dependencies and, when ceasing their use, can result in withdrawal symptoms.
AKA: “K”, “Special K”, “Vitamin K”, “K2”, “Super K”
Ketamine was a drug developed in 1962 to replace PCP and is currently used in anesthesia and veterinary medicine. It produces slurred speech and immobility. Its non-medical use was documented in the 1970’s as a “clubbing” drug and is sometimes pushed off as MDMA or “ecstasy”. Ketamine is also combined with drugs such as cocaine (referred to as “Calvin Klein” or “CK1”. After an increase in Ketamine’s illegal use, it was listed as a Schedule III controlled substance in 1999 by the United States Controlled Substance Act. In August of 2005 Canada classified Ketamine as a Schedule I narcotic.
If you have a case involving Ketamine or any other drug, NLPA can assist. We provide assistance at the pretrial, pre-sentencing, appeal, or post-conviction stage of a case. We also can assist in both state and federal cases nationwide. Contact us today for more information!